Links and References on the Ecological Effects of Small Dams


State of Pennsylvania:

Pennsylvania DEP Bureau of Waterways Engineering:

Bureau of Watershed Management:

Growing Greener Initiative:

Other States:

New Hampshire State Department of Environmental Services Dam Removal and River Restoration Program

Federal Government:

The National Inventory of Dams

Non-government Organizations:

American Rivers

American Whitewater Association

East Machias Dam Removal Project

Friends of the River

International Rivers Network

River Alliance of Wisconsin Dam Removal Toolkit

Trout Unlimited

University Web Sites:

National Performance of Dams Program Stanford University


American Rivers, Friends of the Earth, and Trout Unlimited, 1999. Dam removal success stories: restoring rivers through selective removal of dams that don’t make sense.

Aspen Institute. 2002. Dam Removal: A New Option for a New Century. The Aspen Institute, Washington, DC. 68 pp.

Babbitt, B. 2002. "What goes up, may come down". Bioscience 52(8): 656-58.

Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder, and J.B. Stribling, 1999. "Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and wadeable rivers: periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish, second edition". EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.

Bednarek, A.T. 2002. "Dams and Decision-making: Balancing socioeconomic and ecological considerations". Ph.D. dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Bednarek, A.T. 2001. "Undamming rivers: a review of the ecological impacts of dam removal". Environmental Management 27: 803-14.

Bowman, M.R. 2002. "Legal perspectives on dam removal". Bioscience 52(8): 739-47.

Bunn, S.E. and A.H. Arthington. 2002. "Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic diversity". Environmental Management 30: 492-507.

Bushaw-Newton, K. L.; Hart, D. D.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Thompson, J. R.; Egan, J.; Ashley, J. T.; Johnson, T. E.; Horwitz, R. J.; Keeley, M.; Lawrence, J.; Charles, D.; Gatenby, C.; Kreeger, D. A.; Nightengale, T.; Thomas, R. L., and Velinsky, D. 2002. "An integrative approach towards understanding ecological responses to dam removal: the Manatawny Creek Study." J. American Water Res. Assoc. 38(6):1581-1599.

Collier, M., Webb, R.H., and J.C. Schmidt. 1996. Dams and rivers: a primer on the downstream effects of dams. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1126, Tucson, Arizona, 94 pp.

Dynesius, M., and C. Nilsson, 1994. "Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world". Science 266:753-762.

Friedl, G. and A. Wuest. 2002. "Disrupting biogeochemical cycles – consequences of damming". Aquatic Sciences 64: 55-65.

Graf, W.L., 1999. "Dam nation: a geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts". Water Resources Research 35: 1305-1311.

Gregory, S., Li., H., and J. Li. 2002. "The conceptual basis for ecological responses to dam removal". BioScience 52(8): 713-723.

Hart, D.D., 1994. "Building a stronger partnership between ecological research and biological monitoring". Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13:110-116.

Hart, D.D. and N.L. Poff. 2002. "A special section on dam removal and river restoration". BioScience 52(8):653-655.

Hart, D.D., Johnson, T.E., Bushaw-Newton, K.L., Horwitz, R.J., Bednarek, A.T., Charles, D.F., Kreeger, D.A., and D.J. Velinsky. 2002. "Dam removal: Challenges and opportunities for ecological research and river restoration". BioScience 52(8):669-681.

Hart, D.D., Johnson, T.E., Bushaw-Newton, K.L., Horwitz, R.J., and Pizzuto, J.E. 2003. "Ecological effects of dam removal: an integrative case study and risk assessment framework for prediction". pp. 67-80. In: Dam Removal Research: Status and Prospects. W.L. Graf, editor. The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment. Washington, DC.

Hauer, F.R., and G.A. Lamberti, [eds], 1996. Methods in Stream Ecology. Academic Press, San Diego.

Heinz Center. 2002. Dam Removal: Science and Decision Making. The Heinz Center, Washington, DC. 221 pp.

Johnson, S.E. and B.E. Graber. 2002. "Enlisting the social sciences in decisions about dam removal". Bioscience 52(8): 731-38.

Koel, T.M. and R.E. Sparks. 2002. "Historical patterns of river stage and fish communities as a criteria for operations of dams on the Illinois River". River Research and Applications: 18: 3-19.

Nilsson, C.; Jansson, R., and U. Zinko. 1997. "Long-term responses of river margin vegetation to water-level regulation". Science 276:798-800.

Nilsson, C. and K. Berggren. 2000. "Alterations of riparian ecosystems caused by river regulation". Bioscience 50(9):783-792.

Nilsson, C, and M. Svedmark. 2002. "Basic principles and ecological consequences of changing water regimes: riparian plant communities." Environmental Management 30: 468-80.

Petts, G.E., 1984. Impounded Rivers, Perspectives for Ecological Management. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Pizzuto, J. 2002. "Effects of dam removal on river form and process". BioScience 52(8):683-92.

Porter, S.D., Cuffney, T.F., Gurtz, M.E., and M.R. Meador, 1993. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the national water- quality assessment program. Open-File Report 93-409. U.S. Geological Survey, Raleigh, North Carolina, 39 pp.

Rood, S. B.; Gourley, C. R.; Ammon, E. M.; Heki, L. G.; Klotz, J. R.; Morrison, M. L.; Mosley, D.; Scoppettone, G.; Swanson, S., and P. L. Wagner. 2003. "Flows for floodplain forests: a successful riparian restoration." Bioscience 53(7):647-656.

Shafroth, P.B., Friedman, J.M., Auble, G.T., Scott, M.L., and J.H. Braatne. 2002. "Potential responses of riparian vegetation to dam removal". BioScience 52(8):703-712.

Shuman, J.R. 1995. "Environmental considerations for assessing dam removal alternatives for river restoration". Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 11:259-261.

Southerland, M.T., and J.B. Stribling, 1995. Status of biological criteria development and implementation. Pages 81-96 in W.S. Davis and T.P. Simon (Eds.), Biological assessment and criteria: tools for water resources planning and decision making, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Stanley, E.H. and M.W. Doyle. 2002. "A geomorphic perspective on nutrient retention following dam removal". BioScience 52(8):693-702.

Stanley, E.H. and M.W. Doyle. 2003. "Trading off: the ecological effects of dam removal". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 15-22

US EPA, 1998. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment, EPA/630/R-95/002F

Whitelaw, E. and E. MacMullan. 2002. "A framework for estimating the costs and benefits of dam removal". Bioscience 52(8): 724-30.